11.1 Theory of Flight
11.1.1. Aeroplane Aerodynamics and Flight Controls
Operation and effect of:
— roll control: ailerons and spoilers,
— pitch control: elevators, stabilators, variable incidence stabilisers and canards,
— yaw control, rudder limiters;
Control using elevons, ruddervators;
High lift devices, slots, slats, flaps, flaperons;
Drag inducing devices, spoilers, lift dumpers, speed brakes;
Effects of wing fences, saw tooth leading edges;
Boundary layer control using, vortex generators, stall wedges or leading edge devices;
Operation and effect of trim tabs, balance and antibalance (leading) tabs, servo tabs, spring tabs, mass
balance, control surface bias, aerodynamic balance panels.
11.1.2. High Speed Flight
Speed of sound, subsonic flight, transonic flight, supersonic flight;
Mach number, critical Mach number, compressibility buffet, shock wave, aerodynamic heating, area
Factors affecting airflow in engine intakes of high speed aircraft;
Effects of sweepback on critical Mach number.
11.2 Airframe Structures — General Concepts
(a) Airworthiness requirements for structural strength;
Structural classification, primary, secondary and tertiary;
Fail safe, safe life, damage tolerance concepts;
Zonal and station identification systems;
Stress, strain, bending, compression, shear, torsion, tension, hoop stress, fatigue;
Drains and ventilation provisions;
System installation provisions;
Lightning strike protection provision; Aircraft bonding.
(b) Construction methods of: stressed skin fuselage, formers, stringers, longerons, bulkheads,
frames, doublers, struts, ties, beams, floor structures, reinforcement, methods of skinning, anticorrosive
protection, wing, empennage and engine attachments;
Structure assembly techniques: riveting, bolting, bonding;
Methods of surface protection, such as chromating, anodising, painting;
Airframe symmetry: methods of alignment and symmetry checks.
11.3 Airframe Structures — Aeroplanes
11.3.1 Fuselage (ATA 52/53/56)
Construction and pressurisation sealing;
Wing, stabiliser, pylon and undercarriage attachments;
Seat installation and cargo loading system;
Doors and emergency exits: construction, mechanisms, operation and safety devices;
Windows and windscreen construction and mechanisms.
11.3.2 Wings (ATA 57)
Landing gear, pylon, control surface and high lift/drag attachments.
11.3.3 Stabilisers (ATA 55)
Control surface attachment.
11.3.4 Flight Control Surfaces (ATA 55/57)
Construction and attachment;
Balancing — mass and aerodynamic.
11.3.5 Nacelles/Pylons (ATA 54)
— Engine mounts.
11.4 Air Conditioning and Cabin Pressurisation (ATA 21)
11.4.1 Air supply
Sources of air supply including engine bleed, APU and ground cart.
11.4.2 Air Conditioning
Air conditioning systems;
Air cycle and vapour cycle machines;
Flow, temperature and humidity control system.
Control and indication including control and safety valves;
Cabin pressure controllers.
11.4.4 Safety and warning devices
Protection and warning devices.
11.5 Instruments/Avionic Systems
11.5.1 Instrument Systems (ATA 31)
Pitot static: altimeter, air speed indicator, vertical speed indicator;
Gyroscopic: artificial horizon, attitude director, direction indicator, horizontal situation indicator, turn
and slip indicator, turn coordinator;
Compasses: direct reading, remote reading;
Angle of attack indication, stall warning systems;
Other aircraft system indication.
11.5.2 Avionic Systems
Fundamentals of system lay-outs and operation of:
— Auto Flight (ATA 22),
— Communications (ATA 23),
— Navigation Systems (ATA 34).
11.6 Electrical Power (ATA 24)
Batteries Installation and Operation;
DC power generation;
AC power generation;
Emergency power generation;
Inverters, transformers, rectifiers;
11.7 Equipment and Furnishings (ATA 25)
(a) Emergency equipment requirements;
Seats, harnesses and belts.
(b) Cabin lay-out;
Cabin Furnishing installation;
Cabin entertainment equipment;
Cargo handling and retention equipment;
11.8 Fire Protection (ATA 26)
(a) Fire and smoke detection and warning systems;
Fire extinguishing systems;
(b) Portable fire extinguisher
11.9 Flight Controls (ATA 27)
Primary controls: aileron, elevator, rudder, spoiler;
Active load control;
High lift devices;
Lift dump, speed brakes;
System operation: manual, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, fly-by-wire;
Artificial feel, Yaw damper, Mach trim, rudder limiter, gust lock systems;
Balancing and rigging;
Stall protection/warning system.
11.10 Fuel Systems (ATA 28)
Dumping, venting and draining;
Cross-feed and transfer;
Indications and warnings;
Refuelling and defuelling;
Longitudinal balance fuel systems.
11.11 Hydraulic Power (ATA 29)
Hydraulic reservoirs and accumulators;
Pressure generation: electric, mechanical, pneumatic;
Emergency pressure generation;
Indication and warning systems;
Interface with other systems.
11.12 Ice and Rain Protection (ATA 30)
Ice formation, classification and detection;
Anti-icing systems: electrical, hot air and chemical;
De-icing systems: electrical, hot air, pneumatic and chemical;
Probe and drain heating;
11.13 Landing Gear (ATA 32)
Construction, shock absorbing;
Extension and retraction systems: normal and emergency;
Indications and warning;
Wheels, brakes, antiskid and autobraking;
11.14 Lights (ATA 33)
External: navigation, anti collision, landing, taxiing, ice;
Internal: cabin, cockpit, cargo;
11.15 Oxygen (ATA 35)
System lay-out: cockpit, cabin;
Sources, storage, charging and distribution;
Indications and warnings.
11.16 Pneumatic/Vacuum (ATA 36)
Sources: engine/APU, compressors, reservoirs, ground supply;
Indications and warnings;
Interfaces with other systems.
11.17 Water/Waste (ATA 38)
Water system lay-out, supply, distribution, servicing and draining;
Toilet system lay-out, flushing and servicing;
11.18 On Board Maintenance Systems (ATA 45)
Central maintenance computers;
Data loading system;
Electronic library system;
Structure monitoring (damage tolerance monitoring).
11.19 Integrated Modular Avionics (ATA42)
Functions that may be typically integrated in the Integrated Modular Avionic (IMA) modules are,
Bleed Management, Air Pressure Control, Air Ventilation and Control, Avionics and Cockpit Ventilation
Control, Temperature Control, Air Traffic Communication, Avionics Communication Router, Electrical
Load Management, Circuit Breaker Monitoring, Electrical System BITE, Fuel Management, Braking
Control, Steering Control, Landing Gear Extension and Retraction, Tyre Pressure Indication, Oleo
Pressure Indication, Brake Temperature Monitoring, etc.
Core System; Network Components.
11.20 Cabin Systems (ATA44)
The Cabin Intercommunication Data System provides an interface between cockpit/cabin crew and
cabin systems. These systems support data exchange of the different related LRU’s and they are
typically operated via Flight Attendant Panels.
The Cabin Network Service typically consists on a server, typically interfacing with, among others, the
— Data/Radio Communication, In-Flight Entertainment System.
The Cabin Network Service may host functions such as:
— Access to pre-departure/departure reports,
— E-mail/intranet/Internet access,
— Passenger database;
Cabin Core System;
In-flight Entertainment System;
External Communication System;
Cabin Mass Memory System;
Cabin Monitoring System;
Miscellaneous Cabin System.
11.21 Information Systems (ATA46)
The units and components which furnish a means of storing, updating and retrieving digital information traditionally provided on paper, microfilm or microfiche. Includes units that are dedicated
to the information storage and retrieval function such as the electronic library mass storage and
controller. Does not include units or components installed for other uses and shared with other
systems, such as flight deck printer or general use display.
Typical examples include Air Traffic and Information Management Systems and Network Server
Aircraft General Information System;
Flight Deck Information System;
Maintenance Information System;
Passenger Cabin Information System;
Miscellaneous Information System.